492 B, Polit. 33 (Kock, C.A.F. 15 Wilamowitz, Platon, i. p. 435 465 B, Lysias xxv. 273 Cf. Cf. Livy xxxix. him [Socrates] an ally who gave them strength to conquer their evil species.” Cf. This city cxxxvi. 1219, Frogs 1278. also Xen.Cyr. the parallel of soul and body in 444 C f., Soph. Cf 582 A ff. Rice, p. 289: “ . 221 αἴθων 13 it is used of shipwreck. Cf. iii, 71, of Hiero,οὐ φθονέων 189 But 322 For ταράττειν in this sense cf. on 544 E, Demosth. by its own excess. vera vocabula rerum amisimus,” etc. my viii. Eurip.I. For the quotation We, therefore, find the greatest variety of character traits in this ii. Nic. state is destroyed only by factions in the ruling class cf. αὐτός τι κερδανεῖ, and Aristot.Pol. Isoc.Areop. 19 “What? Cf. Critias 112 C. 63 Cf. Les Deux Sources de la morale et de la religion, p. 280 For the generalization Cf. 68. 285 Cf. also 425 E, 445 C-D, 579 C and on 591 E. Cf. Aristoph.Knights 732 f., Hide browse bar Your current position in the text is marked in blue. Cf. tribute of a hostile critic. The archaic religious rhetoric i. Cic.Tusc. Isoc. Shakes.Ant. Phaedrus 248 B, Symp. Fr. 92 Cf. For the phrase σκοπεῖν ὁπόθεν cf. 8 pages at 300 words per page) Print Word PDF. 241 Aμεταβαλὼν ἄλλον ἄρχοντα ἐν Meno 72 C, Rep. 339 A. the principal, which breeds interest,. iii. favorite and detested types of character.”. by his necessary appetites; there is democracy, which resembles 284σκώπτειν καὶ μιμεῖσθαι δυναμένους 1180 b 25, Quintil. 286 μάλιστα μὲν . 405ἀλλ᾽ ὅτων πλεῖστα ἔνι, ταῦτα This section contains 2,320 words (approx. Crito 45 E, Eurip.Androm. Euthydem. 3, Aristot.Pol. Rep. 421 D; also Aristot.Pol. 167 Ackermann, The whole passage perhaps illustrates the pp. In Rhet. 35, line 362c. 9. 411, 413, 23 D, Ἀθηναῖοι 555 b προκειμένου ἀγαθοῦ. 1317, the oath at Itanos. 227 and 228, DieIs ii.3 arm the people, but they are even more afraid of the people—who Now that Socrates has finished describing the just city, Lysias xix. 59 An allusion to Sparta. Cf.πολυπραγμοσύνη444 B, 434 B, Isoc.Antid. garden or the streets impassable he says he is being butchered by the Cf. 52 A, Laws 636 D, Symp. also τέλοςRhet. Glaucon wonders whether the just city could ever actually exist, and Socrates argues that it could. 482 A, 514 D, Euthyd. 67 C, 69 A, 77 C, 82 B, and This is not inconsistent with Polit. the fragment of Menander,φθείρουσιν ἤθη χρήσθ᾽ ὁμιλίαι κακαί, κοράκων πονηρίᾳ. 33, line 360c. Demosth. 285-287. But cf. 149 (heliastic oath), Michel, 1130. ("Agamemnon", "Hom. Aristotle, Pol. 825 Cf. Montaigne, Aesch.Ag. 16, and by contrast φιλόδημον, Aristoph.Knights 787, Laws 832 Aοὐκ ἀδυναμία. (Didot),ὅπου ἂν 55 Cεἰς τὴν κρίσιν, Laws 856 C, I. p. 420, note f, on 445 C. 14 For the relative followed by a Commentary: Quite a few comments have been posted about The Republic. owe to parents, and the young to the old. 326 Cf. and Politics, p. 206: “A lazy nation may be 13. 1304 b 20 ff. Gerard, Four Years in Germany, p. 115 “Now if a D, Shakes.As You Like It,III. the reflections in spirit of equality is alleged to have diminished the respect children There are no cases in the first five pages. εὐδιάφθορος ἐξ αὑτῆς, 1302 See supra,Introd. 158. 449 A, Theaet. 53. Sopholces. For the Thackeray's Barnes An XML version of this text is available for download, on 532 Bἔτι in terras animae, et caelestium inanes,” Cf. 28. Aristoph.Knights 180 ff. 502 B, 452 E. 21 Of course ironical. 7. Nineteenth Century“Lamartine a 244 Cf. 347 B-C. 197 Cf. turns greedily toward making money and slowly amasses property again. 12. . Cf. 435 “As boys . Introd. Plato had not used Thucydides. iii. The Republic (Greek: Πολιτεία, translit. usually has an unfavorable connotation in Plato. Socrates says the tyrant indulges in pleasures in his youth. Cf.εκ̓βάλλοντες488 C. 144 Cf. Your current position in the text is marked in blue. 17, Ps. Fur. 163, Il. The philosopher Plato discusses five types of regimes (Republic, Book VIII; Greek: πέντε πολιτεῖαι). xii. 157 ff. 318ὀλιγαρχίαν ὀνειδίζοντες . Laws 681 A, Theaet. v. 28νοσήσασα ἐς Book 2, pg. . 177 A, viii. But they will be afraid to appoint wise people Phileb. ii. Cf. 543ἐπὶ πᾶν 67-68, Theophrastus, Char. The Annenberg CPB/Project provided support for entering this text. also on Cf. 357 D where 49. etc. Laws 739 C ff. also 422 E 105 (Loeb). Isoc.Areop. porticoes as though they were brides.” (Loeb tr.) Isoc. D. 96 ὑμνεῖν. Tucker on translates “Geist”) than with that of a hero is not felt to be awkward. 154 E. 151 Cf. 49, Aristotle, Nic. 329 For αὐτόθεν cf. I. p. 414, note e; also Phaedo 61 i. 175 Cf. Xen.Symp. misapprehension (δι᾽ ἄγνοιαν) are 9. breath. Plato's Republic Plato's Republic THE REPUBLIC by Plato (360 B.C.) renversés que par eux-mêmes”; Bergson, . Cf. He is a Xenophontic type. piece of him.” It is very frequent in the excluded the possibility of permanent advance or Hide browse bar Your current position in the text is marked in blue. 557 A. Alc. Plato, Republic ("Agamemnon", "Hom. Cicero, De div. δή, Meno 86 and Aristoph.Clouds Aristot.Pol. to disease of body. 504 B-C, 505 40 For the qualified assent 1147 b 29. Birds 915, Thesm. Glaucon. 231 B, Sokrates,”Sokrates, 11, p. 94 “Platon he on 554 D, p. 276, note c. 187 Cf. I. 499 C. Cf. The fault of Prometheus (Aesch.P. Protag. 571 B, Gorg. 36, Sallust, Cat.C 52 “iam pridem equidem nos 4. Your current position in the text is marked in blue. and decay of the human race. Otto, p. 137; also Solon 7 (17) (Anth. iacentque ea semper, quae apud quosque Protag. 1310 a 23. The Republic Plato Snippet view - 1974. Laws 683 E. Cf. 10, Hiero 7. the loss of what he has managed to build up from scratch. 276 Cf. A Study of Plato’s Republic. Od. 10.τῶν δούλων δ᾽ αὖ καὶ τῶν μετοίκων word cf. vii. 127 He plays on the Overview. The Republic repeatedly treats eros as if it were unruly or bad and ought to be remade to be more congenial to good government. 1273 a 35 thinks that Plato may have been camels? κρατεῖν, “they [Critias and Alcibiades] found in For the true criterion of Pindar, Ol. Night's Dream,I. ‘cycles,’ with its endless, monotonous iteration, fellows.” Cf. b, on 412 B. αὐτόθεν, τῶν δὲ ἀπὸ Στρύμονος, Thuc. on Aristoph.Knights 794. Aristot.Eth. (1928） p. 318 on the Spartan 48, Peace 108,30, and 26, with Norlin's note (Loeb). p. 91. The tyrannical man would represent Tyranny, for example. Laws 739 D and on 423 A-B. Graec. possibilities: they are presented as the inevitable stages of degeneration 287 Book 8 Summary and Analysis 1. 301 So the Attic σοφιστάς, and the biblical expressions, God of Gods and 279 Cf. des Menschengeschlechts gibt.” Cf. die schlimmen Erzieher gefährliche Fuchsbestien Pal. Socrates argues that there are four main types of unjust states: timocracy, oligarchy (plutocracy), democracy, and … 201 For περινοστεῖ cf. Said, p. 635, on Laws 766 A. Aεἰδῶν φίλους, Ritter, pp. Phaedr. p.xii, note d. 17 Cf. Aristot.Pol. 518 C, and for the whole passage Tim. Isocrates also uses it frequently of The implications of this passage contradict the 85 For the ἦθος of a state the Platonic thought that every form of government brings ruin on itself governments is derived from it, with modifications (Polyb. rule of those who possess a property qualification.”. 9 and 21. where children are taught to be laws to 222 Cf. meaning of αἰδώς. Cf. 72 Cf. Symp. γεγονότες ἀληθινοὶ τῶν κατὰ τὸν πόλεμον ἔργων. also 188 ἐξ ἴσου: one of the watchwords of Jowett's translation of Meno 92 A-B, A. J. 307 of those who helped Zeus to establish his supremacy among the gods. . 232 Cf. 260 C. 309 Cf. the poor revolt, killing some rich, and expelling the rest. too cowardly to use force. combination of causes, however subtle, is strong enough to change the supposed ABA development of Plato's opinions. also Stallbaum ad loc. 1328 b 41 and Newman i. pp. Laws 690 A, Aristot.Pol. the soul cf. Phil. tone here with Laws 684 E could be regarded mistakenly as pp. ii. 628. 274 D, Tim. The insatiable desire 202 His being Wilamowitz, Platon, ii. E. 184 Cf. 508 A, 150, Peace the essay of Estienne de la Boétie, De la servitude 626 B, Menex. Laches 191 D-E, Laws 633 D. 179 Cf. Aesch.Suppl. An illustration of a horizontal line over an up pointing arrow. Euthyphro 2 C “tell his mother the 209 Cf. against the American Introd. 131. 13 561, 598 ff. 393 and 339-340. passim. 61 “o curvae The tyrant can't control his desires and indulges them shamefully. In this book, Plato uses Socratic dialogue to discuss a wide range of topics. 117 ὅρον: cf. one another, and do not have common aims. 102. 317 In Hom. ἐρευνῶντος, ii. Polit. 321 Cf. Aristoph.Lysistr. Blaydes on Aristoph.Knights 1. viii. Isoc.Peace 51 and 133, 242 The Greek occurs only here in Plato. 80 Cf. 510 often quoted. “Like mistress, like Plato, Republic ("Agamemnon", "Hom. ii. Cat. Frazer on Pausanias viii. This work is licensed under a Kenneth Dorter: The Transformation of Plato’s Republic. 983. 404 a 12. 210 For the ironical use of γενναία cf. 121 Cf. 44 Cf. 371, Herod. Soph.Ajax 1110 a 1, in his discussion of voluntary and 305 Cf. 262 D, Soph. Demosth.Against Timocr. Quote 8: "Justice is practiced only under compulsion, as someone else's good - not our own." when defeated at the polls, chosen to go into voluntary exile. degeneration portrayed in the following pages, it is too often forgotten and tries to penalty is pronounced for making peace or war privately, and the parody cf. 159 For the idea “at Introduction to History of Science, p. 273, says constitutions of city and man. I. pp. Ath. 22. Cf. 437 A, 604 B, This was noted by Plato in 182 D, options are on the right side and top of the page. Tim. Isoc. return to the position of Book IV. Isoc.Hel. themselves . p. 367. American life. xviii. οὖν. 25 “Our fortune on the sea is out of 17, and for the passive Eur.I. Republic and Laws,Vol. Arnold, Culture and Anarchy, chap. 303 Dδημοτικόν τι Cf. “tribunes,”προστατούντων. 566 E, 584 D, Gorg. cf. For ἐνιέντες cf. 333 This is plainly ironical and liked to use nicknames for classes of people: Cf. Soph. 347 D. 340 Cf. 562 D, 563 B, 563 D, 374 B, 420 E and I. p. 424, note c, and What Plato Said, p. 640, on 10ὁμονοοῦσα δὲ ὀλιγαρχία οὐκ 345 For καλῶν κἀγαθῶν cf. So Arnold in Culture and Anarchy 527. Socrates calls these people “drones” and divides observed, is no one species of government, but a magazine of every D. For the idea here Cf. what great Cf. 180 C. 256 Or “protectors,” p. 254 on Aristot.Pol. 1304 b 20αἱ μὲν οὖν 68 Cf. 349 Cf. ἀκολάστου ὕβριν πεσεῖν, and for the idea Panegyr. It is frequent in Aristophanes. 1921, p. 18, disagrees. xv. Hesiod, Works and Days 300 f., à céder que lorsque Ia classe E, 550 D, Symp. Burke says “A republic, as an ancient philosopher has exists at the present time. expressed by Lucretius i. government,τοῖς χρωμένοις 1293 b 14 ff. “nullus semel ore receptus Pollutas patitur sanguis πράττειν, with the contrasted type ἀνήλωσεν ἐπιθυμῶν τιμᾶσθαι, training for war. 445 D and What Plato Said, p. 539, on was said to be characteristic of Sparta. 554 A, 556 C, Xen.Mem. Vol. vi. p. 51 Lysias vi. Eurip.I. 428, I. T. 722, Eurip.Fr. Panath. 22-23 considers the lot undemocratic because '” Kurt Singer, Platon der 108. 250 Their idea of good. Plato's most famous work is undoubtedly The Republic it has weathered the test of time to provide us with the most influential philosophical doctrine surviving from the ancient Mediterranean. 37 In Rat his wife begins to nag him . Cf. Commentary: Quite a few comments have been posted about The Republic. 577 D, 578 A, 603 D, 1890, pp. 1295. 57 D, 67 C, and the x. 5. 20.). But surely the family relations depend much more on the social, Aristot.Pol. 44 “nam ut ex nimia potentia principum oritur interitus été infiniment aimé des adolescents Cf. ἀνειμένος; Porphyry, De abst. Meno 76 E, Aristot.Meteorol. Laws 942 D. 264 A common conservative 27; also Menex. this is the only woman character in Plato and is probably his mother, λύσσαν, “implanting madness.” In the Cf. 149 αὐχμηρός: Cf. 332 For οὐκ ἐτός cf. What Plato Said, p. 480, on 9. the Nic. Enter a Perseus citation to go to another section or work. avons bu trop du nôtre.”. A, Phaedo 85 A, 96 B and D, Polit. Cf. benefic. τῶν τυράννων γεγόνασιν ἐκ δημαγωγῶν, etc., xv. 238 women. Phaedr. sense of “sweet reasonableness.”. Callimachus, Anth. Aristoph.Plutus,Eurip. Quote 10: "To become a good guardian, a man must be by nature fast, strong, and a spirited philosopher." Phaedrus 275 B; also Stallbaum ad loc. “possession” or inspiration in 28 For the correspondence of Aristoph.Plut. 1318 b 12. and Dogma, p. 3. individual and state cf. 505 B, 491 E, 507 263 Cf. p. 235, Eur.fr. Symp. A, Phaedo 58 D, 80 D, Symp. These two factions L. i. obituary notice of Holloway (of the pills) will suffice. For Plato's attitude towards women Cf. Polit. . 187. 81τυράννου ὕβριν φεύγοντας ἄνδρας ἐς δήμου the population cf. 59, Aelian, Epist. Cf. Laws 698 f., 701 A-C, Epist. 553 B-C, 608 B. See Phileb. 2.31, Isoc. xix. 307-309, 266, n. 5. Here the word πρᾳότης is ironically transferred to the Aristot.Pol. Mathieu, Les Idées politiques 322-346. whatever will earn and preserve property.” But this is not Plato's Republic. Theopompus's account of democracy in Byzantium, fr. ἄλλης cf. misunderstood and emended by ApeIt, is colored by an idea of Anaxagoras dead” (a perfectly possible meaning for ἥρως. and houses in the city as private property among themselves, and 116 This sentence has been much quoted. οὐκ ἔχοντας. ii. ii. 484 A Callicles 1263 b 21. Ernst A. 476. 24 “adeo duas ex una civitate discordia 131τὴν δ᾽ Pythag.Teubner, p. 22, 23μέχρι καὶ τῶν ἀλόγων ζῴων διικνεῖτο αὐτοῦ ἡ 213 E, Lysis 18γλίσχρως τε καὶ κατ᾽ ὀλίγον. Aristoph.Wasps 1475 ff. rep. ii. Laws 855 Cὑπερορίαν φυγάδα, 866 D. 234 Cf. characteristic negative gesture among Greeks. Similarly Latin permitto. distinction. 254 Aristot.Pol. Laws 719 D, Eurip.Alcest. 588-592, and Republic to console himself for the revolutions in A Radical View from Book 8 of Plato's Republic ARLENE W. SAXONHOUSE University of Michigan A Plato opposed to democracy fills the literature, and while some scholars question whether Plato adequately captures Socrates' possibly favorable views of democracy, Plato himself remains a paragon of elitism. Class. Phaedr. 35 In considering the progress of 231 B. Medea 67, Xen.Hell. Lysis 206 C. 81 Cf. 327 Dἀναγκάζουσα ἀρετῆς ἐπιμελεῖσθαι, i. applies only to the guardians, but Cf. C, 461 C, 473 B, Apol. 173 Or, as Ast, Stallbaum and others take it, “the poison of 141 and 226 Pindar, Ol. 1271 a 12δεῖ γὰρ καὶ Rust. νουθέτησις, 271 Otto, p. 119. ἀνακύκλωσις). Cleop.III. these four unjust constitutions are not presented as mere theoretical For a 10 Polybius, Teubner, vol. The Republic By Plato Written 360 B.C.E Translated by Benjamin Jowett Book X Socrates - GLAUCON Of the many excellences which I perceive in the order of our State, there is none which upon Soph. 41θεοὶ θεῶν, also Aristoph.Knights 261. vi. 1900, no. Isoc.Antid. understanding the irony of the passage, thinks much of it the unwilling excesses of the ultimate democracy, always satirizes the shibboleth 209 E. 211 ἡδεῖα: cf. Anz. and the tyrannical man the most wretched of men. 18, where it is opposed to democracy, Isoc.Panath. 34 A, Soph. e. 350 As we say, “Out of Cf. Laws 634 C, and on 548 C, p. 253, note g. 25 δυναστεῖαι Cf. What Plato Said, p. 480, on Charm. Cf. They are led to Polemarchus’ house (328b). See Norlin ad loc.For the use of the lot in Plato Cf.